Electoral System: Philippines

Government Type:

A presidential, representative, and democratic republic where the President of the Philippines is both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party system.

Head of State: 

Chief of State & Head of Government: Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III, President, President

Upper House total number of seats: 


Lower House total number of seats: 


Electoral Constituencies:

House of Representatives:

  • Directly Elected (230 seats): Single-­‐member constituencies divided by population among the provinces, cities and Manila.
  • Indirectly Elected (57 seats): One at-­‐large constituency. 
  • Senate (24 seats): One at-­‐large constituency.


96.71 million (2012)

Number of registered voters: 

52 million (52,014,648)

Related Party: 
Electoral System: 
Mixed: Parallel (Segmented) (PR Lists and Majoritarian constituencies). • (Parallel is a first-past-the-post method in single member constituencies & a proportional method for national party lists). President: Directly elected in a first‐past-­the-­post voting system for a term of 6 years. The President is not eligible for re-­‐election). Parliament: • House of Representatives: •Directly Elected (230 seats): Elected in a single-­‐member district plurality system for a term of 3 years. •Indirectly Elected (57 seats): 20% of all seats in the House of Representatives are reserved for registered national, regional, and sectoral parties or organizations. Elected in an open party list at-­‐large voting system for a term of 3 years. Parties are limited to a maximum of three seats. Senate (24 seats): Elected in a plurality-­‐at-­‐large voting system for a term of 6 years. Half of the Senate is elected every 3 years. Limited to 2 terms."
Election Threshold: 
2% • Under constitutional provisions, the PR tier must comprise 20 percent of total seats. While the constitution provides for a 250-member House, it also permits the legislature to change that size. Numbers above reflect the current apportionment. In the PR tier, members generally represent special ""sectoral"" minorities, though this constitutional provision was set to expire after three terms from 1987. (The 1987 constitution reserved half of these seats to said groups.) Under a 2009 court ruling related to the 2007 legislative elections, a party represented in one tier may not hold seats in the other, effectively reserving all PR seats to minor parties. The threshold in the PR tier is 2 percent, but no party may hold more than three seats in it. Prior to the 2009 ruling, elections would not necessarily fill all PR seats.)"
Election Deposit Requirement: 
P10,000.00/candidate filing fee
Election Management Body: 

Commission on Elections (www.comelec.gov.ph) is a 7-­‐person commission appointed by the President. The chairman and three other commissioners are appointed for a 7-­‐year term, two commissioners are appointed for a 5-­‐year term, and the final member for a 3-­‐year term.

Quota for women: 

• 27% for the House of Representatives.
• The 1991 Local Government Code No. 7160 (s. 41, para. C) requires that a woman be 1 of 3 sectoral representatives included in every municipal, city and provincial legislative council.